Training Methods

As a result of research in the field of training, a number of programmes are available. Some of these are new methods, while others are improvements over the traditional methods. The training programmes commonly used to train operative and supervisory personnel are discussed below. These programmes are classified into on-the job and off-the job training programmes. 

On-The-Job-Training Methods 

This type of training, also known as job instruction program, is the most commonly used methods. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of offering first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. On-the-job training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments.

a. Job Rotation 

This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different jobs assignment. Though this type of training is common in training, managers for general management positions, trainees can also be rotated, from job to job in workshop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employee on other jobs and respect them. 

b. Coaching 

The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.

c. Job Instruction 

This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this method, trainers explain the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allow him to do the job.

d. Committee assignments 

Under the committee assignment, group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. It develops team work.

Off-The-Job Training Methods 

Under this method of training trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. Off-the-job training methods are as follows:

a. Vestibule Training

In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. Material, files and equipment those are used in actual jobs performance are also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semiskilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from a few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method.

b. Role Playing 

It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.

c. Lecture Method 

The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. The major limitation of the lecture method is does not provide for transfer of training effectively.

d. Conference or discussion

It is a method in training the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts, ideas and data, test assumptions, and draw conclusions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance. Discussion has the distinct advantage over the lecture method in that the discussion involves two-way communication and hence feedback is provided. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. The success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person, who leads the group. 

e. Programmed instruction

In recent years this method has become popular. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is expensive and time consuming.