Steps in Training Programs

Training programmes are a costly affair, and a time consuming process. Therefore, they need to be drafted very carefully. Usually in the organization of training programmes, the following steps are considered necessary.

1. Discovering or identifying the training needs.

2. Getting ready for the job

3. Preparation of the learner

4. Presentation of operation and knowledge

5. Performance try-out

6. Follow-up and Evaluation of the programme.

1. Discovering or Identifying Training Needs 

A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. The most important step, in the first place, is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organization, its operations and manpower resources available in order to find out “the trouble spots” where training may be needed.

Identification of training needs must contain three types of analyses are organizational analysis, operations analysis and man analysis.

Organizational analysis centre primarily upon the determination of the organizations goals, its resources, and the allocation of the resources as they relate to the organizational goals. The analysis of the organizational goals establishes the frame work in which, training needs can be defined more clearly.

Operational analysis focuses on the task or job regardless of the employee doing the job. This analysis includes the determination of the worker must do the specific worker behavior required, if the job is to be performed effectively.

Man analysis reviews the knowledge, attitudes and skills of the incumbent in each position and determines what knowledge, attitudes or skills he must acquire and what alterations in his behaviors he must make if he is to contribute satisfactorily to the attainment of organizational objectives.

2. Getting Ready For the Job 

Under this step, it is to be decided who is to be trained, the new comer or the older employee, or the supervisory staff, or all of them selected from different departments. The trainer has to be prepared for the job, for he is the key figure in the entire programme.

3. Preparation of the Learner 

Following are the steps involved in the preparation of the Learner.

a. in putting the learners at ease

b. in stating the importance and ingredients of the job, and its relationship to work flow.

c. in explaining why he is being taught

d. in creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs.

e. in explaining the ‘why’ of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows.

f. in placing the learners as close to his normal working position as possible.

g. in familiarizing him with the equipment, materials, tools and trade terms.

4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge 

This is the most important step in a training programme. The trainer should clearly tell show, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The Learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job, and why each step in its performance necessary. Instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently; there should be an emphasis on key points and one point should be explained at a time. For this purpose, the trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations. He should also be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understands the job.

5. Performance Try Out 

Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining, him each step. Mistakes are corrected, and if necessary, some complicated steps are done for the trainee the first time. The trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job in a right way, he is put on his own, but not abandoned.

6. Follow-Up 

This step is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts. This consists in:

a. Putting a trainee “on his own”

b. Checking frequently to be sure that he has followed instructions, and

c. tapering off extra supervision and close follow-up until he is qualified to work with normal supervision. It is worth remembering that if the learner hasn’t learnt, the teacher hasn’t taught.