SCIENTIFIC THEORIES

1.       FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR, M.E., D.Sc., (1911), (Mechanical Engineer) : In consonance of U.S. President Roosevelt’s remarks – “the conservation of our national resources is only preliminary to the larger question of national efficiency” and based on his observations and experiments, earned out on the shop floor level, proposed certain principles like. Work-study, time-motion study, task planning etc. to improve workshop efficiency. He founded the systems Engineering principles.

2.       MARY PARKER FOLLETT (1863- 1933) :In the 1920′s Mary Parker Follett’s comments and writing on leadership, power, law of situation, conflict integration and circular behavior, empowerment, teams and networked organizations, importance of relationships within and among organizations, authority, control etc., were way ahead of her time. She examined the creative group process, crowd psychology, neighborhood and work, governance, the self-in relation to the whole and ideals of integration, synthesis and unifying differences. She was truly a prophet of management. Mary Follet proposed certain principles to motivate the human resources, based on behavioral science for securing high level of sustained efficiency.

 

POWER:

 Control is coming more and more to mean fact-control rather than man-control.

Central control is coming more and more to mean the correlation of many controls rather than a superimposed control. Circular behavior is the basis for integration.If your business is so organized that you can influence a co-manager while he is influencing you, so organized that a workman has an opportunity of influencing you as you have of influencing him; if there is an interactive influence going on all through the time between you, power may be built up.

 

3.      FRENCHMAN HENRY FAYOL (1841-1925) : He projected the subject as a general theme and proposed principles of universal applicability in any industry, office and administration. He belongs to the classical school of management theory and was writing and exploring administration and work about same time as F.W.Taylor in USA. While both have a task focus, their approaches are quite different. Fayol was particularly interested in authority and its implementation while Taylor concentrated on work organization (e.g efficiency). Fayal’s five functions still form the basis of much of modern management thought and action.

a. Plan and look ahead

b. Organize

c. Command

d. Co-ordinate

e. Control (feedback and inspect)

 

He also indent field 14 principles that he saw as common to all organizations.

a. Specialization division of labor

b. Authority with responsibility

c. Discipline

d. Unity of direction

e. Unity of command

f. Remuneration

g. Centralization

h. Sub-ordination of individual interests

i. Chain/line of authority

j. Order

k. Equity

I. Lifetime jobs (for good workers)

m. Initiative, and

n. Esprit decorps.

 

4.      KORT LEWIN (1890-1947) : “A Dynamic Theory of Personality” published in 1935 outlines Group Dynamics. He explored the following queries :

a. Group productivity: Why was it that groups are so ineffective in getting things done?

b. Communication: How influence is spread throughout a group.

c. Social perception: How a person’s group affected the way they perceived social events.

d. Inter group relations. ·

e. Group membership: How individual adjust to these conditions.

f. Training leaders: Improving the functioning of groups (T-groups)

 

5.      CHARLES HANDY : An organizational thinker, popularized a typology of cultures. Power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture.

 

6.      GEERT HOFSTEDE (1991) : Researched into organization cultures identified six independent dimensions of practices :

a. Process – oriented versus results – oriented.

b. Job – oriented versus employee orientated.

c. Professional versus parochial.

d. Open systems versus closed systems.

e. Tightly versus loosely controlled, and

f. Pragmatic versus normative.

 

7.      Similar researchers like, organizational  psychologist, Chris Argyris (1976)- Double loop learning, WARREN BENNIS – Leadership theories, PETER CHECKLAND - SOFT SYSTEMS APPROACHES, MUMFORD – PARTICIPATIVE SYSTEMS DESIGN and theories like. Complexity theory and chaos theory, paved ways for developing principles of scientific management.

Most theories were concentrating on the central theme of organization and the work force. Mathematical and operation research techniques were applied only very recently as tools of management.