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Quite often the individual portions of a general programme are relatively distinct and planned and executed as projects.

A project is a small programme. Quite often, individual parts of a general programme are clear-cut and relatively distinct, so they can be planned and executed as separate projects. When the operations of a programme can be easily divided into separate parts with a clear end point project structure is preferred. Each project has definite goals concerning task assignments and time. The project itself may consist of several sub-plans. For example, new product development project may be a complex one including sub-plans like developing and exploring new markets for existing products, selling existing products more intensively in present markets, marketing a new product altogether and so on. According to J.M. Stewart a project has the following features:

  •             The activity has a clear objective.
  •             Somewhat unique and unfamiliar to the existing organization.
  •             The activity is complex and critical to the organization.
  •              The activity is temporary with respect to duration of need.

One advantage with the project form of organization is that it allows the project structure to be phased out. The best available talent can be pooled to accomplish a specific and complex activity within time, cost and I or quality parameters.