Process of Communication

The process of communication consists of the following steps or stages: 

i. Message

This is the background step to the process of communication, which, by forming the subject matter of communication necessitates the start of a communication process. The message might be a fact or an idea, or a request or a suggestion, or an order or a grievance. 

ii. Sender

The actual process of communication is initiated at the hands of the sender; who takes steps to send the message to the recipient. 

iii. Encoding

Encoding means giving a form and meaning to the message through expressing in into-words, symbols, gestures, graph, drawings etc.

iv. Medium

It refers to the method or channel, through which the message is to be conveyed to the recipient. For example, an oral communication might be made through a peon or over the telephone etc; while a written communication might be routed through a letter or a notice displayed on the notice-board etc.

v. Recipient (or the Receiver)

Technically, a communication is complete, only when it comes to the knowledge of the intended person i.e. the recipient or the receiver.

vi. Decoding

Decoding means the interpretation of the message by the recipient: with a view to getting the meaning of the message, as per the intentions of the sender. It is at this stage in the communication process, that communication is philosophically defined as, ‘the transmission of understanding’. 

vii. Feedback

To complete the communication process, sending feedback to communication, by the recipient to the sender is imperative. ‘Feedback’ implies the reaction or response of the recipient to the message, comprised in the communication.