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Elements of Motivation


In any motivational system, there are three elements, namely: (a) the individual who is being motivated; (b) the job; and (c) the work situation.

The individual: Every individual, whether a top ranking manager or a lower level worker, is a unique being. Workers may differ from one another in several respects, such as, age, sex, education, intelligence, personality, physical characteristics, experience, heredity, and social and cultural background. These differences will determine the needs attitudes of workers. They will also determine how each worker will react to motivational devices such as monetary and non-monetary incentives.

The job: Every job within the set-up of an organization prescribes different requirements and holds a different level of attractiveness for each worker. Routine jobs are not liked by many because of the monotony and dullness involved in doing them. But sometimes even challenging jobs may not hold attraction for some people. This means there will rarely be a job which is regarded as a source of enjoyment and pride by one and all. 

The work situation: The environment within which work is to be performed also creates motivation. This includes (a) organizational goals and values which help to identify desired outcomes or results, and the nature of behavior that will help to achieve them (b) the type of technology (c) leadership style in terms of participation in decision – making and (d) the rewards such as salary, perquisites, benefits, promotional prospects, status, etc.