DEFINITIONS – ORGANIZATION

LOUIS A. ALLEN:Organization is a mechanism or structure that enablesliving things to work effectively together. The evolution of all forms of life and ofhuman society demonstrates the need for organization.

OLIVER SHELDON:Organization is the process of combining the workwhich individuals or groups have to perform with facilities necessary for its executionthat the duties so performed provide the best channels for efficient, systematic, positiveand coordinated application of available effort.

BARNARD:Organization is a system of consciously coordinated activities orforces of two or more persons.

MOONEY and RAILEY:Organization is the form of every human associationfor the attainment of a common purpose.

JOSEPH L. MASSIE:Organization is the structure and process by which acooperative group of human beings allocates its tasks among its members, identifiesrelationships and integrates its activities towards common objectives.

KOONTZ and O’DONNELL:Organization is the establishment of authorityand relationships with provision for coordination between them, both vertically andhorizontally in the enterprise structure.

ALVIN BROWN: The part which each member of an enterprise is expected to perform and the relations between such members, to the end that their consistent endeavor shall be most effective for the purpose of the enterprise.

A study of the above definitions makes it clear that organization involves: identification and grouping of work, defining responsibility; delegation of authority; establishment of structural relationships; and coordination of interrelated activities. Organization is concerned with (a) the attainment of objectives by grouping the activities, (b) dividing these activities into different departments, divisions, sections and between individuals, (c) providing authority, delegation, coordination and communication, (d) providing physical facilities like buildings, equipment, etc. for the smooth and successful performance of the tasks; and (e) establishing clear structural relationships among individuals and groups.