Planning is the process of determining the objectives of the administrative effort and of devising- means calculated to achieve -them. In other words, planning is the preparation for action. It is an endeavor to apply foresight to human activity, and is based on knowledge and research.
Terry has defined planning in terms of future course of action. He says that, “Planning is the selection and relating to facts and making using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formalization of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired result.
Mcfarland has defined as a concept of executive action that embodies the skills of anticipating, influencing and controlling the nature and direction of change.
According to Koontz and O’donnell, “Planning involves selecting enterprise objectives, departmental goals and programmes, and determining the· ways of reaching them”. Planning, thus, provides a rational approach to pre-selected objectives.
According to Philip Kotler, “Planning is deciding in the present what to do in future. It is the process whereby companies reconcile their resources with their objectives and opportunities.